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What's more, the political implications of each are different. If there's a culture of poverty, there needs to be a broader cultural realignment among all poor people, one that's not limited to the black community. If there are no internal cultural forces at play, then the "racism exists" explanation becomes more significant. Put more simply, there are three options for why black people continue to experience higher levels of poverty: it's in part black people's fault, it's in part poor people's fault, and it's society's fault.
The best answer, without question, is the latter. Let's say, for the sake of argument, that the problem lies with the second option, that there is something about being poor that results in future generations being poor. If this culture exists, what are its components? Ryan's remarks offer one view: it involves "men not working and just generations of men not even thinking about working or learning the value and the culture of work, and so there is a real culture problem here that has to be dealt with.
Last November, the National Bureau of Economic Research published a study suggesting that the children of people who receive government benefits are more likely themselves to receive such benefits. The study — conducted by looking at Norwegian, not American, benefits usage — found a relationship.
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But the noticeable uptick in the likelihood of children signing up for benefits programs was to the effect of being 1-in or 1-in-8 more likely to do so. There simply isn't a strong argument to be made that identifies attributes of enduring poverty from attributes common to the black community.
Jessi Streib, SaunJuhi Verma, Whitney Welsh, and Linda M. Burton
Chait never presents one clearly. In fact, in his most recent response to Chait, Coates argues that his opponent confuses the first and second options, conflating black culture with the culture of poverty. Coates' point, in part, is that Chait is pointing to things that are primarily specific to communities of color as being representative of the culture of poverty at large. But, further, that blurring that line tends to happen more when the "roots of poverty" being identified are more rampant in the black community.
Perhaps another assumption is in order. Let's assume instead that the black culture option is the correct explanation. That pathology actually is something reserved for black people. But again: What are the components of that culture? Paul Ryan got in trouble because he implied that the problem was, in short, laziness. Coates frames it loosely in similar terms — "black people are less responsible, less moral, or less upstanding" — which Chait quickly steps away from, preferring the gauzy expression "cultural norms that inhibited economic success.
It's what got Ryan in trouble. Goode, Judith; Eames, Edwin Gmelch; W. Zenner eds. Urban Life. Waveland Press. Harrington, Michael Lewis, Oscar Five families; Mexican case studies in the culture of poverty. Basic Books. In Moynihan, Daniel P. New York: Basic Books. Lewis, Oscar . Mayer, Susan E.
The Source of Black Poverty Isn't Black Culture, It's American Culture
What money can't buy: Family income and children's life chances. Cambridge, Massachusetts : Harvard University Press. Retrieved Stack, Carol B. Categories : Research on poverty Sociological theories Anthropology. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Articles lacking in-text citations from July All articles lacking in-text citations. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
The Poverty of Culture
As a result, few children grow up in homes with a reliable provider and a reliable caretaker.
The reaction of the reputed father, however, is the most important factor, for, in effect, he holds the power of veto. There will also be some social pressure upon the man to support the child, particularly if the girl is known as a quiet, respectable girl who does not run around. Moreover, even if he believes that the child is his own, if he does not want to support the child he will disown it, and usually with impunity, unless the girl should bring him to court for the maintenance of the child.
The result, as the reader will see in the theoretical chapters, is that family patterns which are frequently referred to as problems of the lower class are perhaps better seem as cultural solutions of the lower class to other, more basic problems. This seems like an awfully tall order. The man is expected to work and to earn for his family… Unfortunately, the lower-class man is involved in much unemployment, underemployment, poorly paid employment, and unskilled employment.
The Source of Black Poverty Isn't Black Culture, It's American Culture
Because of these handicaps in his occupational role he is frequently unable to fulfill his provider role…. The consequences for the man are particularly far-reaching when damage is done to him in this crucial joint role. He loses status, esteem, and income power, and this influences his position in the community and the family. He is held in low esteem by the members of his own family when he is unable to fulfill their expectations of him as a provider.
As a result, he often seeks gratification and relationships outside his family. This may be a factor in explaining the strong peer relations that develop within the lower-class community. Male peers who are in similar circumstances are able to develop relationships through which it is possible to gain gratification. Similarly, in extramarital relationships a man may have sufficient resources available in order to provide adequately for another woman, if even only for a short period of time.
These words have middle-class meanings, imply middle-class judgments, and should not be used to describe lower-class behavior — unless, of course, our intention is to judge this behavior in a middle-class manner in order to bolster a sagging middle-class ego. But over time, delayed gratification would sharply raise their standard of living — especially for mothers and children.
Conditions That Promote a Culture of Poverty
In any walk of life, it is wisdom for less successful people to emulate more successful people. This is true in sports, games, school, jobs, and life itself. Only foolish pride says otherwise. I wonder what policy implications he draws from his study?
Would some sort of wage subsidy with income being subject to court mandated child support have the effect over time of producing more responsible behavior? I guess in some ideal sense couples should negotiate these kinds of questions before they procreate and then be able to come to a binding agreement? This is my thinking. Then again, I sort of have a theory that you can tell which commenters are Russian trolls by their strange adoption of ideas that seem bizarre from a modern American perspective — looking down on Southern European ethnicities might be one of those things.
Americans pretty much think in terms of large groupings like Black vs. White vs. Argentina and Brazil were also poorer and less educated than the US, so Italian immigrants to the US also started out further away from the mean than Italian immigrants to South America. I know of what I speak. A culture can be dysfunctional from a capitalist, economic point of view by never producing a surplus and using it to produce more wealth and be entirely functional from a biological, Darwinian point of view its people are effectively maximizing offspring and inclusive fitness.