This applies to tables and figures as well as to text. A table or figure should be inserted in the text as soon after it is first referred to where it will fit in its entirety on one page.
Dissertation Formatting Help: APA-Style Headings Explained
Leave three blank lines between a table and text or text and a table; the same for figures. Continue your text if you can fit at least four lines after it.
You may have more than one table on a page and you may have a table, discussion, and a table. The same procedure applies to all illustrative material. APA style requires writers to double space all typed material, including the exceptions noted above. You have the option, however, of double spacing your references and block quotations; MLA style users also have this option. The title page is counted as page one and the copyright page as page two, but numbers do not appear on them.
Lower case roman numerals iii, iv, v, vi, etc. Beginning with page 1 of Chapter I, Arabic numbers are used and are continuous through the last page including all appendices. Page numbers for all pages in the chapter, including the first page of each chapter or major section, should be placed three quarters of an inch from the top or bottom edge of the paper centered between the margins. Your dissertation will be automatically copyrighted by UMI when it is published. You should include a copyright page with your name and copyright date in the middle of the page, centered left to right between the margins and top to bottom.
Please note that the copyright date is the year of your degree conferral. Follow this format:. The copyright page is page ii of the pages preceding the text the title page is understood to be page i , but no number should appear on either the title page or the copyright page. Because a dissertation does not have an index, your Table of Contents should be as comprehensive as possible.
Include all headings and subheadings, exactly as they appear in the text, up to and including Level 2. Including lower level headings is optional. See sample Table of Contents in the next section. Note that the indentation of a heading used in the Table of Contents corresponds to the level of the heading. The following illustrates this:.
Apa doctoral dissertation
You should supply the reader with lists of tables, figures, and any other illustrative material used in your dissertation. See the sample lists in the next section.
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Lists of musical examples or reproductions of art, or information about films, follow the same form as that used for lists of tables and figures. Chapter headings and titles appear centered between the margins as follows, beginning two inches from the top of the page:.
Table of contents
Headings within the chapter should indicate the weight you assign to particular ideas by the form of headings suggested in the style manual you have selected or the form suggested below. Leave three blank lines i. If one heading immediately follows another, leave only one blank line a double space between the two. Leave one blank line a double space after each heading.
Capitalize the first letter of each word of headings except for articles, conjunctions, and prepositions. The following is one way in which to order headings and to type them. Be sure that no heading appears at the bottom of a page without at least two lines of text beneath it. The Table of Contents will contain all Level 1 and Level 2 headings exactly as they appear in the text.
It is not necessary to include Level 3 or lower-level headings in the Table of Contents, but you may if it provides the reader with more useful information. Chapter numbers are upper case roman numerals with no period , e. All other items requiring numbers should have Arabic numbers.
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- Example of a table of contents;
Appendices, should be designated by capital letters, e. Use numbers or letters for other items only when necessary. Use 1 in the text and 1. If items in a numbered list run onto two or more lines, you may let the additional lines begin at the margin or indent the entire paragraph to the right of the numbers. Numbers beginning a sentence, as well as numbers below 10 or, if you prefer, 12 should be spelled out when they appear within the text. If a table, appendix, illustration, or graph is too wide or long, or both, to fit within the specified margins, have it reduced, or if textual material, type it using a smaller font.
Whenever possible, avoid inserting tables which must be read by turning the book sideways. If such a table is necessary, be sure to insert it with the heading to the spine or binding. You may also use a condensed typeface. For style guides other than APA, if you have more than one work by the same author, do not repeat his or her name over and over. Use 10 underscore characters, ending with a period if the author is exactly the same as the previous one, or with a comma if the author is the first of a series of new authors, as shown below.
Single space the entry; double space between entries. Indent the second and subsequent lines one-half inch. Note that authors with two initials have a space after the period between each initial, e. Do not allow initials to break between lines; keep them together on one line or the other. Regardless of the style guide you use, avoid having one or two lines of an entry on one page and the rest of the citation on the next page. The entry should be cited in its entirety on one page or the other.
The way you cite an author in your manuscript is based on the context. If you are attributing an idea that you paraphrased to someone, use the name and date according to APA style such as Jones, , or as shown in the first sentence below. If you are using a direct quotation, use the same format, but you must include the page number where you found it, as shown in the second sentence below.
Also, specific information or ideas need a page number even if paraphrased. For example, the following brief passage refers to the same publication by a hypothetical author:. Review the whole manuscript to be sure that every work referred to in the manuscript is cited in the text or footnotes and included in the bibliography. Four or more lines of a quotation should be set off from the main text with a double space, typed single spaced with no quotation marks, and the entire block indented one-half inch.
Quotations within these block or indented quotations may use double quotations.
APA 6th Edition for Dissertations: An Introduction
The first line of the quotation is not indented; however, the first lines of new paragraphs within the quotation should begin with an additional indent of one-half inch. Each appendix should have the proper designation at the top of the first page. A title page does not need to be inserted before each one. Use the following format, centered between the left and right margins, beginning two inches from the top of the page:. If you have material that, because of its format, needs to have a title page because the title doesn't fit on the same page as the material , you need to consistently use title pages for all appendices.
Avoid it if you can.
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Again, all material in an appendix must fit within the overall page margins. It is necessary to obtain letters of permission for the reproduction of any copyrighted material which exceeds the Federal law pertaining to "Fair Use. Copies of the letters do not need to be included in the dissertation. The abstract is a brief summary of the contents of the dissertation. Begin typing the abstract two inches from the top of a blank page with no heading. The abstract should be typed double-spaced with the same typeface and margins as the dissertation.
The title page should be numbered the first page.